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Right calcaneal bone ultrasonography (QUS) was performed with a portable QUS device, the Sahara bone sonometer (Hologic, Inc., Waltham, MA), in members of the Offspring Cohort at their examination cycle 6/7 and the Original Cohort during their exam 24 assessment.
Offspring Cohort participants had these measures obtained during a period that included part of the official Framingham exams 6 and 7.
In order to maximize the sample size, we used DXA scans from examination 24 (in 1996–1997) for 31 Original Cohort members who did not have DXAs at examination 22.
The Offspring Cohort was scanned with the same machine at their examination cycle 6 or 7 (between 19).
Additional bone-related quantitative phenotypes are available in the FHS 100K SNP resource (web posted at ) including calcaneal speed of sound; several hip geometry measures including neck cross-sectional moment of inertia; neck, shaft and intertrochanteric buckling ratio, and shaft cross sectional moment of inertia from these same examinations.
Heritability estimates for all bone phenotypes ranged from 30–66%.
We used the Affymetrix 100K SNP Gene Chip marker set in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) to examine genetic associations with ten primary quantitative traits: bone mineral density (BMD), calcaneal ultrasound, and geometric indices of the hip.